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Docker Cheat Sheet

Commands

Container vs image ids

Note in the following examples <container> is either a container id, or a container name (if such is given to a container with the –name option on start). Both can be obtained with docker ps -a. <image> is either an image id, or an image name. Those can be obtained with the docker image command. Do not confuse with container id/name!

Listing Containers

docker ps                           # List running containers
docker ps -a                        # List all containers
docker ps -s                        # List running containers including CPU/memory size

List machine readable:

docker ps -a --format "{{.ID}},{{.Names}},{{.Status}},{{.Image}},{{.Ports}}"

Inspecting containers

docker exec -it <container> bash    # Log into container bash environment
docker inspect <container>          # Instance details
docker top     <container>          # Instance processes
docker logs    <container>          # Instance console log
docker port    <container>          # Shows container's port mapping. The same can be seen with "docker ps" though (row - "PORTS")
docker diff    <container>          # Shows changes on container's filesystem. Will produce a list of files and folders prefixed by a
                                    # character. "A" is for "added", "C" is for changed.
docker stats   <container>          # Shows the consumed resources (memory, CPU, network bandwidth)
docker export --output="latest.tar" <container> #Export a container’s filesystem as a tar archive

Starting containers

Start a container with default entrypoint and in background

docker start -it ubuntu

Start a container with a command like /bin/bash

docker run -i -t ubuntu /bin/bash   # New instance from image. "-i" is for "interactive" and "t" is for terminal. Without "it" it
                                    # won't be interactive - you will get a shell/terminal, but will not be able to type anything onto 
                                    # it. Without "t" you will not get a terminal opened. The command will run and exit.
                                    
docker run -i -t --rm ubuntu /bin/bash # If you need a one-time container, then use the --rm option. Thus, once you exit the container,
                                    # it will be removed                                  

Start with port forwarding

docker run -p 8080:8080 myserver

Create a network and start container in this network

docker network create --subnet=172.18.0.0/16 elknet        # Create a network 'elknet'
docker run --net elknet --ip 172.18.0.22 -it ubuntu bash   # Assign static IP from network    

Container and image lifecycle

docker start   <container>
docker restart <container>
docker stop    <container>
docker attach  <container>
docker rm      <container>          # Removes / deletes a container (do not confuse with the "rmi" command - it removes an image!).
                                    # The container must be stopped in beforehand.

docker cp '<id>':/data/file .       # Copy file out of container

docker images                       # List locally stored images
docker rmi <image>                  # Removes / deletes a locally stored image
docker save -o <tarball> <image>    # Saves a local image as a tarball, so you can archive/transfer or inspect its content
                                    # Example: docker save -o /tmp/myimage.tar busybox
docker history <image>              # Shows image creation history. Useful if you want to "recreate" the Dockerfile of an image -
                                    # in cases where you are interested how the image has been created.

Building Images

docker build .
docker build -f Dockerfile.test .                     # Use another Dockerfile file name
docker build --target <stage> .                       # Build specific target of a multi-stage Dockerfile
docker build --build-arg MYARG=myvalue .              # Pass variables with --build-arg
docker build --add-host <hostname>:<target> .         # Inject hostnames

Using BuildKit

BuildKit is Docker next-gen build derived from Moby BuildKit. In Docker v18 and v19 it needs to be explicitely enabled. There are two ways to use it.

1.) via environment

export DOCKER_BUILDKIT=1

2.) via new “buildx” command (v19+ only)

docker buildx build <build args>

Note: here “buildx” just serves as a wrapper to provide compatible build commands.

Releasing Images

docker tag <source>[:<tag>] <target>:<tag>
docker push <target>:<tag>

To a private/remote registry

docker tag <source>[:<tag>] <remote registry>/<target>:<tag>
docker push <remote registry>/<target>:<tag>

Networks

docker network ls
docker network rm <network id>
docker network inspect <network id>

Docker Registry v2 API

https://docs.docker.com/registry/spec/api/

/v2/_catalog                # List repositories
/v2/<repository>/tags/list  # List tags for a given repo

DockerHub Rate Limits + Solutions

https://inlets.dev/blog/2020/10/29/preparing-docker-hub-rate-limits.html

Misc

Best Practices for Images

  • When using ext4: disable journaling