MySQL Administration Commands

Below you find a unordered list of solutions by tasks useful for a MySQL DBA:

Live Monitoring of MySQL

There are two useful tools:

  • mytop
  • innotop

with "mytop" being an own Debian package, while "innotop" is included in the "mysql-client" package. From both innotop has the more advanced functionality. Both need to be called with credentials to connect to the database:

mytop -u <user> -p<password>
innotop -u <user> -p<password>

Alternatively you can provide a .mytop file to provide the credentials automatically.

Show MySQL Status

You can get a very simple status by just entering "\s" in the "mysql" command line client prompt:

mysql> \s

You can show the replication status using

SHOW SLAVE STATUS \G
SHOW MASTER STATUS \G

Note that the "\G" instead of ";" just makes the output more readable.

If you have configured slaves to report names you can list them on the master with:

SHOW SLAVE HOSTS;

Check InnoDB status

show /*!50000 ENGINE*/ INNODB STATUS;

List Databases/Tables/Colums

You can either use the "mysqlshow" tool:

mysqlshow                         # List all databases
mysqlshow <database>              # List all tables of the given database
mysqlshow <database> <table>      # List all columns of the given table in the given DB

And you can also do it using queries:

SHOW DATABASES;

USE <database>;
SHOW TABLES;
DESCRIBE <table>;

Check and Change Live Configuration Parameters

Note that you cannot change all existing parameters. Some like innodb_pool_buffer require a DB restart.

show variables;                          # List all configuration settings
show variables like 'key_buffer_size';   # List a specific parameter

set global key_buffer_size=100000000;    # Set a specific parameter

# Finally ensure to edit my.cnf to make the change persistent

MySQL Parameter Optimization

You can check MySQL parameters of a running instance using tools like

Also have a look at this MySQL config parameter explanation.

Remote MySQL Dump and Import

The following command allows dumping a database from one source host that doesn't see the target host when executed on a third host that can access both. If both hosts can see each other and one has SSH access to the other you can simply drop one of the ssh calls.

ssh <user@source host> "mysqldump --single-transaction -u root --password=<DB root pwd> <DB name>" | ssh <user@target host> "mysql -u root --password=<DB root pwd> <DB name>"

How to solve: Could not find target log during relay log initialization

Happens on corrupted/missing relay logs. To get the DB working

  • Stop MySQL
  • Remove /var/lib/mysql/relay-log-index.*
  • Remove all relay log files
  • Remove relog log file index
  • Start MySQL

mysqldump: Error 2013: Lost connection to MySQL server during query when dumping table

This is caused by timeouts when copying overly large database tables. The default network timeouts are very short per-default. So you can workaround this by increasing network timeouts

set global net_write_timeout = 100000;
set global net_read_timeout = 100000;

Forgotten MySQL root Password

# 1. Stop MySQL and start without grant checks

/usr/bin/mysqld_safe --skip-grant-tables &
mysql --user=root mysql

# 2. Change root password
UPDATE user SET password=PASSWORD('xxxxx') WHERE user = 'root';

Import a CSV file into MySQL

LOAD DATA IN '<CSV filename>' INTO TABLE <table name> FIELDS TERMINATED BY ',' (<name of column #1>,<<name of column #2>,<...>);

MySQL Pager - Output Handling

Using "PAGER" or \P you can control output handling. Instead of having 10k lines scrolling by you can write everything to a file or use "less" to scroll through it for example.

To use less issue

pager less

Page output into a script

pager /home/joe/myscript.sh

Or if you have Percona installed get a tree-like "EXPLAIN" output with

pager mk-visual-explain

and then run the "EXPLAIN" query.

MySQL - Check Query Cache

# Check if enabled
SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'have_query_cache';

# Statistics
SHOW STATUS LIKE 'Qcache%';

Check for currently running MySQL queries

show processlist;
show full processlist;

Filter items in process list by setting grep as a pager. The following example will only print replication connections:

\P grep system
show processlist;

To abort/terminate a statement determine it's id and kill it:

kill <id>;    # Kill running queries by id from process listing

Show Recent Commands

SHOW BINLOG EVENTS;
SHOW BINLOG EVENTS IN '<some bin file name>';

Inspect a MySQL binlog file

There is an extra tool to inspect bin logs:

mysqlbinlog <binary log file>

Skip one statement on replication issue HA_ERR_FOUND_DUPP_KEY

If replication stops with "HA_ERR_FOUND_DUPP_KEY" you can skip the current statement and continue with the next one by running:

STOP SLAVE;
 SET GLOBAL SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER = 1;
START SLAVE;

Changing Replication Format

When you want to change the replication format of a running setup you might want to follow this steps:

  1. Ensure you have a database backup
  2. Make master read-only by running
    FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK;
  3. Wait until all slaves do catch up
  4. Stop all slaves (shutdown MySQL)
  5. On master:
    FLUSH LOGS;
    SET GLOBAL binlog_format='xxxxxx';
    FLUSH LOGS;
    UNLOCK TABLES;

    (ensure to replace 'xxxxxx' with for example 'ROW')

  6. Start all slaves
  7. Ensure to put the new binlog_format in all /etc/mysql/my.cnf

Note: the second "FLUSH LOGS;" ensures that the a new binary log is opened on the master with the new binlog_format. The stopping of the slaves ensures that they open a new relay log matching the new binlog_format.

Munin MySQL Plugin Setup on Debian

apt-get install libcache-cache-perl

for i in `./mysql_ suggest`
do
   do ln -sf /usr/share/munin/plugins/mysql_ $i;
done

/etc/init.d/munin-node reload

Fix Slow Replication

When replication is slow check the status of the replication connection. If it is too often in "invalidating query cache" status you need to decrease your query cache size. You might even consider disabling query cache for the moment if the DB load does allow it:

set global query_cache_size=0;

Debug DB Response Time

There is generic TCP response analysis tool developed by Percona called tcprstat. Download the binary from Percona, make it executable and run it like

tcprstat -p 3306 -t 1 -n 0

to get continuous statistics on the response time. This is helpful each time some developer claims the DB doesn't respond fast enough!

Further Reading

If you think about buying MySQL books...

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